A Community of Women Empowered: In spite of the heavy weight that society places on individuals and communities to conform to its dictates and conventions, numerous examples of resistance demonstrate women's adaptability and receptivity to change—and even, happily, their ability to initiate and achieve social transformation in accordance with their own interests. One prevalent belief, which was widely held by some European travelers, saw the practice as an ancient Egyptian invention and explained its adoption in other localities as a product of cultural diffusion.
As these chapters so richly illustrate, people are not rigid beings unable to respond to the changing worldviews around them, and communities are not fixed, isolated, or immune to deliberate collective transformation. The practice has come to occupy an exceptional position in literary and nonfiction works relying heavily on a genre of horror and horrific imagery to highlight its gruesome, sadistic nature Abusharaf Yet still it is your college female genital mutilation fgm concerns. help with thesis statement handout middle school After exploring these contexts and debates surrounding the practice in Part I, the volume turns to examples of current campaigns in Africa to eradicate female circumcision. After all, these practitioners are the most important players in any effort aiming at obliterating the practice from society.
According to this provision, "Whoever knowingly circumcises, excises, or infibulates the whole or any part of the labia minora or labia majora or clitoris of another person who has not attained the age of 18 years, shall be fined under the title or imprisoned not more than 5 years or both. In her essay "Traditions Against Health: Finally, Charles Piot tracks the groundbreaking "Kasinga" clitoridectomy asylum case through the U. academic writing help sample ielts task 1 general training In the months or years following first coition, intra vaginal penetration cannot trigger an orgasm unless this circuit is functional. Understanding the reasons behind these practices, however, does not imply that we should close our eyes to the effects of the practice on women's bodies.
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According to this provision, "Whoever knowingly circumcises, excises, or infibulates the whole or any part of the labia minora or labia majora or clitoris of another person who has not attained the age of 18 years, shall be fined under the title or imprisoned not more than 5 years or both. Doctors have been confronting difficult births, unusual gynecologic problems and ethical quandaries, complicated by their own emotions as they try to relate to patients who consider ritual mutilation normal and proper" McCullough While gender and class are particularly decisive elements of women's experiences, no singular explanation can sufficiently explain the degradation of women's status cross culturally see O'Barr Anthropological literature on the subject has advanced our knowledge of the symbolic contexts within which female circumcision is performed and sustained. Reflecting on the role of anthropologists in the objectifying construction of African woman as victim, as well as on his reassessment of this subject's situation, Piot concluded that "Kassindja's travail is better understood as one about modernity than tradition, more about the state than the family, more about the entanglements of personal histories than the timeless traditions of an African community.
The collection revolves around three substantive topics: From that time, I began to think, to wonder why girls are circumcised and to learn more about it" El Dareer Indeed, these representations and lacunae, which are so cogently established in the study of African women, have had devastating consequences. Universalism and Human Rights Proponents of cultural accommodation have been taken to task for advancing culture at the expense of rights. This notion has overwhelming consequences for sculpting the feminist discourse on female circumcision in the Western world for recent critiques, see James and Robertson , and Chanock
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In the months or years following first coition, intra vaginal penetration cannot trigger an orgasm unless this circuit is functional. Despite the austere nature of this ritual, its practitioners have attached important symbolic qualities to it. professional writing services rates online On the medical front, health care providers are starting to learn about circumcised female bodies. Abdalla describes the struggle of Somali women to end female circumcision.
Both practitioners and scholars endorsing accommodation of cultural difference and the "free exercise of culture" proclaim that reducing the ritual to a crime, as missionary, colonial, and feminist discourses have done, reflects the inability to "read and to see and to hear female genital mutilation as a series of complex social practices and signifiers which circulate in many other practices and signifiers to produce mutable and mutating and mutual social texts" Fraser Abdel Hadi conducted field research to probe the factors that led villagers to change their thinking about female circumcision, sexuality, and bodily health. She said to me 'Khadjia: This position betrays an unsettling propensity to homogenize representations of African women as helpless victims of patriarchal ideologies and norms. college application essay services humor Focusing on policies proposed, adopted, and implemented in Canada, Macklin explores the complex positioning of women within refugee communities in which FGM is prevalent and the sometimes unanticipated ways in which women's efforts to end it intersect in practice with the provisions of public policy, offering a probing case study involving Somali activist women who used the legal system of the host country to redress this particularly stark manifestation of gender inequality within their communities.
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I have argued that using personal narratives counteracts the pervasive tendency in literature on female circumcision to speak for the excised women Abusharaf As Adrienne Rich, the American feminist poet, has remarked: If you do not understand your health, you cannot appreciate the problems of female genital cutting, and if you do not continue to educate people they will not understand. The dialogue about women's rights and human rights that has begun within these communities has reached from local to national and transnational forums, shifting the terms of the debate from the victimization of women to women becoming agents of change in the most intimate and collective dimensions of their lives.
With support from the World Health Organization WHO and other international agencies, the IAC facilitates networking among groups providing training for health providers, sensitizing policymakers and the public, and devising strategies to eradicate such harmful practices as early marriage and public defloration of brides, as well as female circumcision. Rivers prize essay female genital mutilation is. All we are seeking is knowledge. However, these organizations are well aware that female circumcision cannot be targeted for eradication in isolation from other equally pressing problems affecting the welfare of individuals and communities.